Chapter III

The Progressives and Conservation

The Greatest Good of the Greatest Number in the Longest Run

A  Progressives:  Privilege and purpose

1.  Public service – reform for the privileged
2.  Thirst to prove themselves, Jane Addams – genuine achievement
3.  Gilded age crashes into ills of industrialization

  • Luxury to experimentation
  • Democratic Ideals (For Everyone)


B.  Conservation Movement

Conservation Concept:

1. Management of total environment

2. Development and use of natural resources

3. Prevention of Waste (science and technology)

**All as a part of the public interest (true democracy)

4.  US was a world power BECAUSE of its resources
-EG: economy built on wood  (pics of huge walls of timber

5.  “Island approach -à comprehensive, long range administrative policy”


C.  The Pinchot – TR Connection

1.  Outdoorsmen/Friends/ “Sons of Wealth”/Easterners

2.  Understood the political implications of sustainability/ “The Little Guy”

3.  President — Cabinet Member


D  The National Forests

1.  Sustainable Use and Management

**Key to Public Support

2.  Opposition was fierce

  • –Taking land from financial interests
  • –Special Interests vs Government intervention
  • -ranchers/RR/-Mining
  • –Congress pass law stopping right of TR

3.  Foresters and mapping

  • -“Midnight Forests”   – 21 New National Forests  16 million acres
  • Huge outcry
  • -George Woodruff – Lawyer

4.   Forest Reserve Act 1891

  • -allowed the President to set aside forest reserves from the land in the public domain.
  • -151 million acres of Forest reserves under TR
  • -**was a huge shift in government involvement

5.  Pinchot moved forest reserves from Dept of Interior to the Dept of Agriculture

  • – Forest an agricultural resource
  • -Transfer Act of 1905 created Bureau of Forestry
  • -Department of the Interior Corrupt, no management
  • -Transfer Act created US Forest Service and concept of a “National Forest”
  • -Model agency of modern Federal Government (Progressives)
  • -“Elliott Ness” of the Forest
  • -Forests were nationally owned, controlled, regulated


E  Denver Public Lands Convention

Originally to repeal the Federal Govt right over public lands

Pinchot speech on sustainability

–Reasons for stewardship

                                    “The Greatest Good of the Greatest Number in the Longest Run”



Terms to Know/Revisit


Mugwump                                            Suffrage                        Election of 1896

Protectionism                                      WCTU                         Sociological Jurisprudence

Muckrakers                                          Imperialism                  Interstate Commerce Commission

Populist                                               Conservation               Forest Management Act 1897

Frederick Jackson Turner                     Progressivism               Pragmatism

Sherman Anti Trust Act of 1890         Square Deal                  Hepburn Railway Act

New Nationalism                                  Bull Moose Party         Utilitarianism

Forest Reserve Act 1891                      Executive Orders

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