Create your account. Posted by 2 years ago. Approximately 7,000 People of Laos are Hindus. Hinduism is practised by the ethnic Cham people of Vietnam, particularly in the Ninh Thuan province (22%) and Binh Thuan (4.8%). In other parts of Indonesia, the term Hindu Dharma is often loosely used as an umbrella category to identify native spiritual beliefs and indigenous religions such as Hindu Kaharingan professed by Dayak of Kalimantan. Indian merchants spread Hinduism to the Pacific and South East Asia in the first millennium.  Numerous temples dedicated to Shiva were constructed in the central part of what is now Vietnam. Islam was started in Saudi Arabia and spread south and south-west to North Africa and North West India, they were spread the same way, but in Saudi Arabia they had writers who would write down Muhammad's teachings and spread through reading. This thread is archived. Another Hindu temple, built on a site with minor archaeological remnants attributed to the Kingdom of Blambangan, the last Hindu polity on Java, and Pura Loka Moksa Jayabaya (in the village of Menang near Kediri), where the Hindu king and prophet Jayabaya is said to have achieved spiritual liberation (moksa). With the emergence of Islam in Mecca and Medina and its expansion outside the Arabian Peninsula came with the expansion of Muslim traders across establishe… For example, the popular epic, Ramakien, is based on the Ramayana. The British kangani system of recruitment, designed to reduce labour turnover and enhance labour stability, encouraged Hindu workers to recruit friends and family from India to work in British operations in Malaysia. Hoadley, M. C. (1991). As this statistics shows, believers of Hinduism can be found in countries far away from India.  The name of the ceremony was derived from the names of two Tamil language Hindu chants: Thiruvempavai and Thiruppavai. Society and culture of Southeast Asia: Continuities and changes. Many of these ideas are part of thirty-seven Nat or deities found in Burmese culture.. The cult enabled the Khmer kings to embark on massive architectural projects, constructing majestic monuments such as Angkor Wat and Bayon to celebrate the king's divine rule on earth. Hinduism has been spread to other regions primarily by the... See full answer below. The Mariamman Temple is one of the most notable Tamil Hindu temples in Ho Chi Minh City. European historians have argued that it came through trading contacts with India whereas some Southeast Asian Muslim scholars claim it … Southeast Asia was frequented by traders from eastern India, particularly Kalinga, as well as from the kingdoms of South India . , An example of resurgence around major archaeological remains of ancient Hindu temple sites was observed in Trowulan near Mojokerto, the capital of the legendary Hindu empire Majapahit. Become a Study.com member to unlock this Earn Transferable Credit & Get your Degree, Get access to this video and our entire Q&A library. It was hence referred to by the Sanskrit name "yāvaka dvīpa" (dvīpa = island). Where was the ancient Dong Son metalworking... Why is the historic city of Ayutthaya a World... What did King Taksin do after the Burmese left... What is a Civilization? The influence of Hinduism has profoundly left its marks on the culture of Bali, Java, and Sumatra. Close. Today, vibrant Hindu communities remain in Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Medan (Indonesia) and the Philippines mainly due to the presence of Indians, such as Tamil people, who migrated from the Indian subcontinent to Southeast Asia in past centuries. Mỹ Sơn, a Hindu temple complex in central Vietnam built by the Cham people is still standing albeit in ruins in Quảng Nam Province, in Vietnam. These gods are Bramha, Shiv and Vishnu.  If this population composition is typical for the Cham population of Vietnam as a whole then approximately 40% of Chams in Vietnam are Hindu. Both are in Manila city's Paco-Pandacan area, the traditional Indian enclave, and are about 15 minutes walk away from each other. C. Proximity to China encouraged the spread of Buddhism and other practices south into Indochina. Other than the Balinese, a small enclave of Javanese Hindu minorities are also can be found in Java, such as around Tengger mountain ranges near Bromo and Semeru volcanoes, Karanganyar Regency in Central Java, and near Prambanan, Yogyakarta. Immigrants from southern India, mostly Tamils, arrived as labourers for the British East India Company, bringing with them their religion and culture. In the past, the nation came under the influence of the Khmer Empire, which had strong Hindu roots. Many recent converts to Hinduism had been members of the families of Sukarno's PNI, and now support Megawati Sukarnoputri. Thant Myint-U (2001), The Making of Modern Burma, Cambridge University Press. Lokesh, Chandra, & International Academy of Indian Culture. Reliefs in temple walls, such as the 12th-century Prasat Sikhoraphum near Surin (Thailand), show a dancing Shiva, with smaller images of Parvati, Vishnu, Brahma and Ganesha.. often used because of the belief that. For example, the great temple complex at Prambanan in Indonesia exhibit a number of similarities with the South Indian architecture.  Hindu temples built on private property, and built long before Malaysian independence, have been demolished by Malaysian government officials in recent years. The royal court Brahmins operate the temple, they perform several royal ceremonies per year. There was a marked Buddhist influence starting about 425 in the region. Sanskritic continuity in Southeast Asia: The ṣaḍātatāyī and aṣṭacora in Javanese law. Ara Wilson (2008), The Sacred Geography of Bangkok’s Markets, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Volume 32.3, September 2008, page 635. The exact number of Hindus in Vietnam are not published in Government census, but there are estimated to be at least 50,000 Balamon Hindus, with another 4,000 Hindus living in Ho Chi Minh City; most of whom are of Indian (Tamil) or of mixed Indian-Vietnamese descent. In an unpublished report in 1999, the National Indonesian Bureau of Statistics admitted that around 100,000 people had officially converted or 'reconverted' from Islam to Hinduism over the previous two decades. The growth of Hinduism has been driven also by the famous Javanese prophecies of Sabdapalon and Jayabaya. 28, No. Hinduism - Hinduism - Hinduism under Islam (11th–19th century): The advent of Islam in the Ganges basin at the end of the 12th century resulted in the withdrawal of royal patronage from Hinduism in much of the area. Hinduism was replaced by Buddhism in most parts of SEA except for Bali, Indonesia Mayayana Buddhism’s influence faded away … Traders and merchants were probably the cause of the spread of Hinduism to Southeast Asia during the first millennium C.E. How did Hinduism, Buddhism, and Islam become become established in Southeast Asia? Sugriva, the chief of Rama's army dispatched his men to Yawadvipa, the island of Java, in search of Sita. - Definition & Common Elements, Forms of Government: Monarchy, Democracy, Oligarchy & More, Prentice Hall World History Connections to Today, The Modern Era: Online Textbook Help, Glencoe World History: Online Textbook Help, SAT Subject Test World History: Practice and Study Guide, High School World History: Tutoring Solution, AP European History: Homework Help Resource, High School US History: Homework Help Resource, High School US History: Tutoring Solution, NY Regents Exam - Global History and Geography: Help and Review, NY Regents Exam - Global History and Geography: Tutoring Solution, NY Regents Exam - US History and Government: Help and Review, Western Civilization 1648 to the Present: Help and Review, Biological and Biomedical Southeast Asia, the Mon were responsible for the spread of Theravada Buddhism in the Indochina region. Next to Indonesian Balinese, today, the Balamon Cham are the only surviving native (non-Indic) Hindus in Southeast Asia. From there, traders spread Islamic beliefs and Muslim culture throughout the islands of Indonesia and as far east as the Philippines. 400-418. The spread of Hinduism in Southeast Asia and the Pacific. Outside shops, particularly in towns and rural areas, statues of Nang Kwak as the deity of wealth, fortune and prosperity (version of Lakshmi) are found. Since the 1960s, scholars have placed more emphasis on the agency of Southeast Asian mariners and local rulers who selectively adopted and adapted Indian religious conceptions to enhance their prestige. Today, two government bodies deal with all Hindu affairs: The Hindu Endowments Board and The Hindu Advisory Board. In what order did Indians spread religious ideas to Southeast Asia? The spread of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Islam throughout Southeast Asia best exemplifies what geographic theme? best. It’s difficult to trace the early history of Hinduism, but the word Hindu is from the Sanskrit word for the Indus River, “Sindhu.” It was first used by ancient Persians to refer to the people living near the Indus River in present-day Pakistan. In 4th-century, the kingdom of Kutai in East Kalimantan, Tarumanagara in West Java, and Holing (Kalingga) in Central Java, were among the early Hindu states established in the region. Despite the fact that today Thailand is a Buddhist majority nation, many elements of Thai culture and symbolism demonstrates Hindu influences and heritage. © copyright 2003-2020 Study.com.  These Southeast Asian seafaring peoples engaged in extensive trade with India and China. Malaysian Hindus celebrate Deepavali (festival of lights), Thaipusam (Lord Murugan festival), Pongal (harvest festival) and Navaratri (Durga festival). Spread of Hinduism in South East Asia [2000x1494] Close. A. 90% Upvoted. a. movement b. location c. place d. absolute region 28. Hinduism is the fourth largest religion in Malaysia. Numerous rituals derived from Brahmanism are preserved in rituals, such as the use of holy strings and pouring of water from conch shells. Indian Brahmins may have arrived in the area through trade. , The elite, and the royal household, often employ Brahmins to mark funerals and state ceremonies such as the Royal Ploughing Ceremony to ensure a good harvest. Vishnu and Shiva were the most revered deities, worshipped in Khmer Hindu temples. The introduction of Hinduism into Singapore dates back to the early 10th century, during the Chola period. Today in Indonesia, Hinduism is practised by 1.7% of the total population. R. C. Majumdar, Study of Sanskrit in South-East Asia. The Wat Phou is one of the last influences of that period. The Hindu thought was spread in these countries by traders and monks. Sciences, Culinary Arts and Personal Cambodia was first influenced by Hinduism during the beginning of the Kingdom of Funan. Hinduism spread to many countries including Indonesia where it was a major religion until Islam superseded it in the 13th century. , Some scholars have pointed out that the legends of Ikshvaku and Sumati may have their origin in the Southeast-Asian myth of the birth of humanity from a bitter gourd. Unlike the other kingdoms within the Indian subcontinent, the Pallava empire of the southeastern coast of the India peninsula did not have culture restrictions on crossing the sea. Hinduism is a polytheistic faith that is probably best known because of its belief in samsara, or reincarnation. Hinduism spread throughout Southeast Asia and Indonesia, other ethnic groups converted into Hinduism. Indian scholars wrote about the Dwipantara or Jawa Dwipa Hindu kingdom in Java and Sumatra around 200 BC. 95% Upvoted. Buddhism is one of Southeast Asia’s main religions. , The Thai city, Ayutthaya near Bangkok, is named after Ayodhya, the birthplace of Rama. After Malaysia gained its independence from British colonial empire in 1957, it declared its official state religion as Islam and adopted a discriminatory constitution as well as the Sedition Act of 1971 which limited public debate on Malaysia's treatment of religion, language and citizenship policies. Like in neighboring Thailand, the ceremony of coronation is conducted mostly by royal brahmins, during which the sovereign swears in front of the idols of gods Vishnu and Shiva to maintain the ancient national traditions.. The state religion was Hinduism but influenced by the cult of Devaraja, elevating the Khmer kings as possessing the divine quality of living gods on earth, attributed to the incarnation of Vishnu or Shiva. Indian scholars wrote about the Dwipantara or Jawa Dwipa Hindu kingdom in Java and Sumatra around 200 BC. The main religion adhered to in Khmer kingdom was Hinduism, followed by Buddhism in popularity. Meenakshisundaram, the name of the festival indicates that Thiruppavai might have been recited as well. Today, Indonesia has the largest Muslim population of any nation in the world. All other trademarks and copyrights are the property of their respective owners.  By 1950s, about 12.8% of Malaysian population professed to be a Hindu. Hughes-Freeland, F. (1991). Bali has become the last remnant of once Hindu dominated region. The legend of Sumati, the wife of King Sagar, tells that she produced offspring with the aid of a bitter gourd.. Hinduism stayed mostly in Asia. It gave birth to the former Champa civilisation in southern parts of Central Vietnam, Funan in Cambodia, the Khmer Empire in Indochina, Langkasuka Kingdom and Old Kedah in the Malay Peninsula, the Sriwijayan kingdom on Sumatra, the Medang Kingdom, Singhasari and the Majapahit Empire based in Java, Bali and parts of the Philippine archipelago. Since the 15th century under the growing Vietnamese kingdom from the north, Champa was conquered and reduced as a polity. In the early 1970s, the Toraja people of Sulawesi were the first to be identified under the umbrella of 'Hinduism', followed by the Karo Batak of Sumatra in 1977 and the Ngaju Dayak of Kalimantan in 1980. Hindu civilization also transformed and shaped the social construct and statehood of Southeast Asian regional polity. 3 comments. Which statement describes how geography influenced the cultural development of Southeast Asia? However, for the ease of understanding, this thought has divided the Supreme Being into three gods. The Indianised Tarumanagara kingdom was established in West Java around 400s, produced among the earliest inscriptions in Indonesian history. Arrival of Islam Long after Hinduism and Buddhism took root in Southeast Asia, Indians carried a third religion, Islam, into the region.  The Royal emblem of Thailand depicted Garuda, the vahana (vehicle) of Vishnu. 275. , The Hindu communities in Java tend to be concentrated around built temples (pura) or around archaeological temple sites (candi) which are being reclaimed as places of Hindu worship. It is known that Tamil verses from Thiruvempavai — poet pratu sivalai ("opening the portals of Shiva's home") — were recited at this ceremony, as well as the coronation ceremony of the Thai king. There are various Hare Krishna groups in the country that are gaining in popularity.  The swinging ceremony depicted a legend about how the god created the world. report. Punishment by government was legal but. Archived. save. By the 1200s, Muslims ruled northern India. Gujarati Muslims played a pivotal role in establishing Islam in Southeast Asia. Civilizations in Southeast Asia focused on an appreciation to nature, which resulted in a harmonious and … New Delhi: International Academy of Indian Culture and Aditya Prakashan. While most Hindus live in Nepal or India, Hinduism also spread to many parts of Southeast Asia. Before the arrival of an Arab trader to Sulu Island in 1450 and Ferdinand Magellan, who sailed in behalf of Spain in 1521, the chiefs of many Philippine islands were called Rajas, and the script was derived from Brahmi. Hinduism in Burma is practised by about 840,000 people, though a reliable census data is not vailable Most Hindus in Myanmar are Burmese Indians. About 2.78 million Malaysian residents (9.3% of the total population) are Hindus, according to 2010 Census of Malaysia.. Why didn’t Hinduism spread into East Asia or the Middle East like it did with Southeast Asia? From Central Asia, they spread into China in the 2nd century CE. In the later centuries, Buddhism was introduced and it spread all over the Asia, quite ironically that the place where it originated has very less number of followers whereas in countries like Thailand, it is granted official status. The civilisation of India influenced the languages, scripts, written tradition, literatures, calendars, beliefs system and artistic aspects of these peoples and nations.. Why did Buddhism spread to southeast Asia more so than Hinduism? Burmese literature has also been enriched by Hinduism, including the Burmese adaptation of the Ramayana, called Yama Zatdaw. Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism spread from India to Southeast Asia, brought by merchants rather than by missionaries. Other social classes included brahmins (priests), traders, artisans such as carpenters and stonemasons, potters, metalworkers, goldsmiths, and textile weavers, while on the lowest social level are slaves. In what order did Indians spread religious ideas to Southeast Asia? Political and Social Impact. Jonathan Lee, Fumitaka Matsuoka, Edmond Yee and Ronald Nakasone (2015), Asian American Religious Cultures, ABC, Champa and the archaeology of Mỹ Sơn (Vietnam) By Andrew Hardy, Mauro Cucarzi, Patrizia Zolese p.105, History of Indian influence on Southeast Asia, "The spread of Hinduism in Southeast Asia and the Pacific", "The Cham: Descendants of Ancient Rulers of South China Sea Watch Maritime Dispute From Sidelines, The ancestors of Vietnam's Cham people built one of the great empires of Southeast Asia", https://www.phnompenhpost.com/national/royal-cambodian-coronation, "Religion and the Indonesian Constitution: A Recent Debate", "Kisah Kedatangan Rsi Markandeya Versi Bali Majapahit dan Bali Aga - Beritabali.com", "Umat Hindu DIY Gelar Ritual Pensucian Candi Prambanan Pertama Setelah Ribuan Tahun » Badan Dharma Dana Nasional", "Upacara Abhiseka di Candi Prambanan Yogyakarta by | The Jakarta Post Images", 2010 Population and Housing Census of Malaysia (Census 2010), 2011 Report on International Religious Freedom - Malaysia, Malaysian Indian Community: Victim of ‘Bumiputera’ Policy, Indian migrant workers in Malaysia – part 1, Indian migrant workers in Malaysia – part 2, Table: Religious Composition by Country, in Numbers, https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-25438275, https://frontiermyanmar.net/en/myanmars-hindu-community-looks-west, http://www.globalreligiousfutures.org/countries/philippines/religious_demography#/?affiliations_religion_id=0&affiliations_year=2010, "Hinduism Today | Thailand | July/August/September, 2003", http://popcensus.nso.go.th/show_table.php?t=t5&yr=2543&a=1, International Religious Freedom Report 2004, http://www.gso.gov.vn/Modules/Doc_Download.aspx?DocID=12724, Map of Khmer Empire art reveals ancient urban sprawl, Hindu-Kaharingan Tiwah ceremony in Borneo, Indian cultural influences in early Philippine polities, Visa requirements for Philippine citizens, Indian loanwords in various Filipino languages, Influence of Indian languages on Tagalog language, Sanskrit language loanwords in Tagalog language, Tamil language loanwords in Tagalog language, Sanskrit language loanwords in Cebuano language, Sampaguita Filipino national flower is named from Indian sanskrit Champaka, Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes, Hisar, Haryana, India, Business process outsourcing in the Philippines, Pre-Spanish Indian traditions of Philippines, National Assembly of the Philippines Hall, Kudyapi guitar influenced by the Indian classical music, Filipino martial arts inspired by the Indian martial arts, Alim and Hudhud of Ifugao based on Indian Hindu epics Ramayana and Mahabharta, Hudhud - the Ifugao epic based on the Indian epic Mahabharta, Biag ni Lam-ang Ilocano epic based on the Indian Hindu epics Ramayana and Mahabharta, Ibalong epic of Bicol based on Indian epics Ramayana and Mahabharta, Darangen epic of Maranao people based on Indian epics Ramayana, Dr. Leticia Ramos-Shahani - sister of former President Fidel Ramos is married to an Indian, Janina San Miguel (Binibining Pilipinas 2008), Parul Shah (Binibining Pilipinas Tourism 2014), Dr. Josephine Acosta Pasricha (Indologist), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hinduism_in_Southeast_Asia&oldid=994685566, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2020, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Articles with dead external links from January 2020, Articles with permanently dead external links, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. The Hindu civilisations have left their marks on Indonesian culture. One notably Southeast Asian aspect of Tamil Hinduism is the festival of Thaipusam, while other Hindu religious festivals such as Diwali are also well-observed by Hindus in the region. The Ministry of Religious Affairs, as of 2007 estimates there to be at least 10 million Hindus in Indonesia.. "Yawadvipa" is mentioned in India's earliest epic, the Ramayana. By the beginning of the Christian era, Hindus had thoroughly colonized the region from Burma in the north to Java and Annam in the south and southeast. Hinduism spread to Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, Indonesia via trade and Brahman priests Hinduism was the state religion for various SE Asian states from the 5th–14 centuries During this time, Mahayana Buddhism coexisted with Hinduism in much of the region After the 14thc. Ninh Thuan and Binh Thuan Provinces are where most of the Cham ethnic group (~65%) in Vietnam reside according to the last population census. share. 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